[300], A report by the IAEA in 2012 found that the Onagawa Nuclear Power Plant, the closest nuclear plant to the epicenter of the 2011 earthquake and tsunami, had remained largely undamaged. KGW estimates that more than 1 million tons of debris still remain in the Pacific Ocean. In 2001 it was reckoned that there was a high likelihood of a large tsunami hitting the Sendai plain as more than 1,100 years had then elapsed. [110], As of 16 March 2012 aftershocks continued, totaling 1887 events over magnitude 4.0; a regularly updated map showing all shocks of magnitude 4.5 and above near or off the east coast of Honshu in the last seven days[111] showed over 20 events. Fishing boat lying amid the wreckage in Ōfunato, Iwate prefecture, Japan, after being washed ashore by the tsunami that struck the city on March 11, 2011. These natural disasters were exacerbated by additional disruptions from the collateral damage to a [35] This height is deemed the record in Japan historically, as of reporting date, that exceeds 38.2 metres (125 ft) from the 1896 Meiji-Sanriku earthquake. The 2011 Tohoku earthquake struck offshore of Japan, along a subduction zone where two of Earth's tectonic plates collide. The magnitude 9.0 Tohoku-Oki quake was the most powerful earthquake known to hit Japan and the fifth-most powerful quake ever recorded. The break caused the sea floor to rise by several metres. [384], According to Jake Adelstein, most Japanese media accepted and parroted the misinformation put out by the Japanese government and TEPCO about the unfolding Fukushima nuclear crisis. Japan's scientists had forecast a smaller earthquake would strike the northern region of Honshu, the country's main island. East of Japan, the Pacific plate dives beneath the overriding Eurasian plate. Aid organizations both in Japan and worldwide also responded, with the Japanese Red Cross reporting $1 billion in donations. The Motor Vehicle Supply Chain: Effects of the Japanese Earthquake and Tsunami Congressional Research Service 1 Introduction The March 2011 Great Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami struck the northeast coast of Japan. [325], On 13 March the lowest-level state of emergency was declared regarding the Onagawa plant as radioactivity readings temporarily[326] exceeded allowed levels in the area of the plant. In response the Japanese government mobilized the Self-Defence Forces (under Joint Task Force – Tōhoku, led by Lieutenant General Eiji Kimizuka), while many countries sent search and rescue teams to help search for survivors. The event began with a powerful earthquake off the coast of Honshu, Japan’s main island, which initiated a series of large … The tsunami waves also traveled across the Pacific, reaching Alaska, Hawaii and Chile. [76] The Japanese Meteorological Agency said that the earthquake may have ruptured the fault zone from Iwate to Ibaraki with a length of 500 km (310 mi) and a width of 200 km (120 mi). Another cause of delayed evacuations was the release of the second update on the tsunami warning long after the earthquake (28 minutes, according to observations); by that time, power failures and similar circumstances reportedly prevented the update from reaching some residents. [5][6] The earthquake was initially reported as 7.9 Mw by the USGS before it was quickly upgraded to 8.8 Mw, then to 8.9 Mw,[63] and then finally to 9.0 Mw. Now, tsunami experts from around the world have been asked to assess the history of past tsunamis in Japan, to better predict the country's future earthquake risk. wreckage from Japan earthquake and tsunami of 2011. The situation one year after Japan 2011 earthquake and Tsunami is overviewed. Even Afghanistan with a very low GDP donated $50000 to the disaster. [130] The tsunami inundated a total area of approximately 561 square kilometres (217 sq mi) in Japan. (Image credit: Patrick Corcoran, Oregon State University), Trace amounts of cesium-134 and cesium-137, Related: Weird Earth Movement After Japan Earthquake Finally Explained, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Agency has reported, Ready.gov – What To Do During An Earthquake, Dance floor where John the Baptist was condemned to death discovered, archaeologist says, 66 Roman Army camps in northern Spain shed light on infamous conquest, 10 strange animals that washed ashore in 2020, Largest canyon in the solar system revealed in stunning new images. "What Have Religious Groups Done After 3.11? [341] Four trains on coastal lines were reported as being out of contact with operators; one, a four-car train on the Senseki Line, was found to have derailed, and its occupants were rescued shortly after 8 am the next morning. [91] On 6 April the Japanese coast guard said that the quake shifted the seabed near the epicenter 24 metres (79 ft) and elevated the seabed off the coast of Miyagi Prefecture by 3 metres (9.8 ft). In the decade before the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, a handful of Japanese geologists had begun to recognize that a large earthquake and tsunami had struck the northern Honshu region in 869. [331], None of Japan's commercial wind turbines, totaling over 2300 MW in nameplate capacity, failed as a result of the earthquake and tsunami, including the Kamisu offshore wind farm directly hit by the tsunami. "[53] Around 4.4 million households in northeastern Japan were left without electricity and 1.5 million without water.[54]. Japan's monster quake: Do scientists have key to decode future tremblors? Victims aged 60 or older accounted for 65.2% of the deaths, with 24% of total victims being in their 70s. © [181] Surges of up to 1 m (3 ft 3 in) hit Vancouver Island in Canada[179][failed verification] prompting some evacuations, and causing boats to be banned from the waters surrounding the island for 12 hours following the wave strike, leaving many island residents in the area without means of getting to work. [224] One elementary school in Ishinomaki, Miyagi, Okawa Elementary, lost 74 of 108 students and 10 of 13 teachers and staff.[225][226][227]. It was the most powerful earthquake ever recorded in Japan, and the fourth most powerful earthquake in the world since modern record-keeping began in 1900. [190] Peru reported a wave of 1.5 m (4 ft 11 in) and more than 300 homes damaged. Sendai is the most affected city By It was measured at 8.4 on the JMA seismic intensity scale The earthquake happened 130 kilometres (81 mi) off Sendai, Miyagi Prefecture, on the east coast of the Tōhoku of Japan, on March 11, 2011 at 05:46:23 UTC.It was at a depth of 24.4 km (15.2 miles). The aftershocks will thus taper off in time, but could continue for years. [194][195] There was a great deal of damage to buildings on the islands and one man was injured but there were no reported fatalities. [192][193] In the Galápagos Islands, 260 families received assistance following a 3 m (9.8 ft) surge which arrived 20 hours after the earthquake, after the tsunami warning had been lifted. [339][340], Various train services around Japan were also canceled, with JR East suspending all services for the rest of the day. [332], Japan's transport network suffered severe disruptions. [10], The degree and extent of damage caused by the earthquake and resulting tsunami were enormous, with most of the damage being caused by the tsunami. The tsunami caused a cooling system failure at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, which resulted in a level-7 nuclear meltdown and release of radioactive materials. All damaged dams are functioning with no problems. [318] Many radioactive hotspots were found outside the evacuation zone, including Tokyo. The amplitude of the seismic wave is measured using the JMA magnitude scale, which is similar to Richter magnitude scale. [35], The tsunami warning issued by the Japan Meteorological Agency was the most serious on its warning scale; it was rated as a "major tsunami", being at least 3 metres (9.8 ft) high. [131], The earthquake took place at 14:46 JST (UTC 05:46) around 67 kilometres (42 mi) from the nearest point on Japan's coastline, and initial estimates indicated the tsunami would have taken 10 to 30 minutes to reach the areas first affected, and then areas farther north and south based on the geography of the coastline. The Response: 116 countries and 28 organisations offered assistance to Japan. The 2011 Tohoku earthquake struck offshore of Japan, along a subduction zone where two of Earth's tectonic plates collide. [138] A 4-metre-high (13 ft) tsunami hit Iwate Prefecture. The tsunami propagated throughout the Pacific Ocean region reaching the entire Pacific coast of North and South America from Alaska to Chile. [219] 236 children were orphaned in the prefectures of Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima by the disaster;[220][221] 1,580 children lost either one or both parents,[222] 846 in Miyagi, 572 in Iwate, and 162 in Fukushima. The Tohoku earthquake and tsunami that struck the northeast coast of Japan on 11 March has created an enormous human and ecological disaster. The heat build-up caused the generation of hydrogen gas. [5], The main earthquake was preceded by a number of large foreshocks, with hundreds of aftershocks reported. [241], The tsunami was reported to have caused several deaths outside Japan. [382], In this national crisis, the Japanese government provided Japanese Sign Language (JSL) interpreting at the press conferences related to the earthquake and tsunami. More than 5,000 aftershocks hit Japan in the year after the earthquake, the largest a magnitude 7.9. [5][65] Following the main earthquake on 11 March, a 7.4 Mw aftershock was reported at 15:08 JST (6:06 UTC), succeeded by a 7.9 Mw at 15:15 JST (6:16 UTC) and a 7.7 Mw at 15:26 JST (6:26 UTC). The Japanese quake was of similar strength to the 2004 earthquake in Indonesia that triggered a tsunami that killed over 200,000 people in more than … [100] In Antarctica, the seismic waves from the earthquake were reported to have caused the Whillans Ice Stream to slip by about 0.5 metres (1 ft 8 in). The 2011 earthquake off the Pacific coast of Tōhoku (Japanese: 東北地方太平洋沖地震, Hepburn: Tōhoku-chihō Taiheiyō Oki Jishin) was a magnitude 9.0–9.1 (Mw) undersea megathrust earthquake off the coast of Japan that occurred at 14:46 JST (05:46 UTC) on Friday 11 March 2011,[5][11][12] with the epicenter approximately 70 kilometers (43 mi) east of the Oshika Peninsula of Tōhoku and the hypocenter at an underwater depth of approximately 29 km (18 mi).[5][13]. was 43 miles east of Tohoku at a depth of 20 miles. Fishing equipment was scattered on the high cliff above the bay. Stone monuments at the UNESCO World Heritage Site: Shrines and Temples of Nikkō were toppled. Overall electricity consumption during July and August was also 14% less than in the previous year. As of the end of May 2011, residents of Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures had requested deregistration of 15,000 vehicles, meaning that the owners of those vehicles were writing them off as unrepairable or unsalvageable. [39] A 400-kilometre (250 mi) stretch of coastline dropped vertically by 0.6 metres (2 ft 0 in), allowing the tsunami to travel farther and faster onto land. [322], A fire occurred in the turbine section of the Onagawa Nuclear Power Plant following the earthquake. Furthermore, shortly after the earthquake, some wave meters reported a fluctuation of "20 centimetres (7.9 in)", and this value was broadcast throughout the mass media and the warning system, which caused some residents to underestimate the danger of their situation and even delayed or suspended their evacuation. [11][64] On 11 July 2016, the USGS further upgraded the earthquake to 9.1. [361], Matsushima Air Field of the Japan Self-Defense Force in Miyagi Prefecture was struck by the tsunami, flooding the base and resulting in damage to all 18 Mitsubishi F-2 fighter jets of the 21st Fighter Training Squadron. In Norway, water in fjords pointing toward Japan sloshed back and forth as seismic waves from the earthquake raced through. [354][355] Within Japan, only a few websites were initially unreachable. Director Hideaki Anno's 2016 film Shin Godzilla portrays the titular kaiju as a representation of disasters such as the Tōhoku earthquake and the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, and criticizes the Japanese government's response to such disasters. Two months after the earthquake, mangaka Hirohiko Araki incorporated the earthquake itself into the story of JoJolion, the eighth installment of the JoJo's Bizarre Adventure series; while JoJolion is set several months after the fictional town of Morioh was devastated by the earthquake, the earthquake has a key role in the plot as it is the cause behind the emergence of the Wall Eyes, mysterious stone structures that ultimately set the story into motion. The epicentre. [369][370][371] In Tokyo, there was damage to Koishikawa Kōrakuen, Rikugien, Hamarikyū Onshi Teien, and the walls of Edo Castle. [38][39][40] This deviation led to a number of small planetary changes, including the length of a day, the tilt of the Earth, and the Chandler wobble. Because of conservation of angular momentum, such changes of inertia result in small changes to the Earth's rate of rotation. An earthquake measuring 9.0 on the Richter Scale struck off Japan's north-east coast, about 250 miles (400km) from Tokyo at a depth of 20 miles. [266], Tōhoku Electric Power was not able to provide the Kanto region with additional power because TEP's power plants were also damaged in the earthquake. Nor did they expect such a large tsunami. Compare the human lives lost in Sumatra and Japan. Scientific information about the Tōhoku earthquake, Satellite Photos of Japan, Before and After the Quake and Tsunami, Japan in Crisis: A Series of Interviews with Scholars by Peter Shea at the University of Minnesota, Special: The Tōhoku-Oki Earthquake, Japan, Japan Gigantic Earthquake and Tsunami 2011, The East Japan Earthquake Archive (Testimonies of survivors, Photographs and Videos on Google Earth), Gross, Richard. The sea walls in several cities had been built to protect against tsunamis of much lower heights. Fukushima Nuclear Power Station has a radioactive leak. Japan's National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) calculated a peak ground acceleration of 2.99 g (29.33 m/s2). [205], In Japan, the National Police Agency has confirmed 15,899 deaths,[206] 6,157 injured,[207] and 2,529 people missing[208] across twenty prefectures. But Japan's one-two punch proved especially devastating for the earthquake-savvy country, because few scientists had predicted the country would experience such a large earthquake and tsunami. Scientists drilled into the subduction zone soon after the earthquake and discovered a thin, slippery clay layer lining the fault. The effects of the great earthquake were felt around the world, from Norway's fjords to Antarctica's ice sheet. Please deactivate your ad blocker in order to see our subscription offer. The great plates are rough and stick together, building up energy that is released as earthquakes. [167][168] At Tarō, Iwate, the tsunami reached a height of 37.9 metres (124 ft) up the slope of a mountain some 200 metres (660 ft) away from the coastline. [336] Most Tokyo area train lines resumed full service by the next day—12 March. On the day of the quake itself American broadcaster NPR was unable to reach anyone in Sendai with a working phone or access to the Internet. [270] The reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi and Fukushima Dai-ni plants were automatically taken offline when the first earthquake occurred and sustained major damage from the earthquake and subsequent tsunami. The great plates are rough and stick together, building up energy that is released as earthquakes. 7 issued 03/11/2011 at 3:39 am PST", "$1.2M FEMA Tsunami Grant To Ore.'s Curry County – Oregon – Northwest News Story – KTVZ Bend", "PNG's Wewak hospital damaged by tsunami waves", Tsunami damage estimate for Hawaii now tens of millions, "Tsunami washes away feathered victims west of Hawaii", "South Pacific islands hit by tsunami swells", Tsunami Warning For Guam Extended Until 11 p.m, Minor damage in Latin America by Japan's tsunami, Más de 200 casas dañadas dejó seguidilla de olas, Caldera: 80 viviendas resultaron destruidas en Puerto Viejo por efecto de las olas, Más de 200 casas dañadas dejó seguidilla de olas que azotaron las costas chilenas, "Gareth Morgan's Galapagos hotel destroyed by tsunami", "Ecuador Sends Aid To Galapagos After Islands Hit By Tsunami From Japan", Tsunami Aftermath in Galapagos: Update from CDRS' Director Dr. J. Gabriel Lopez, "Japan tsunami caused icebergs to break off in Antarctica", "Antarctic ice-shelf calving triggered by the Honshu (Japan) earthquake and tsunami, March 2011", Japan tsunami victim's soccer ball found in Alaska, "Tsunami motorcycle owner located in Japan", "Quake Shifted Japan; Towns Now Flood at High Tide", "東日本大震災における震災関連死の死者数(平成29年3月31日現在)[平成29年6月30日公表]", 平成23年(2011年)東北地方太平洋沖地震(東日本大震災)の被害状況(平成29年9月1日現在), Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, "Fukushima evacuation has killed more than earthquake and tsunami, survey says", "Stress-induced deaths in Fukushima top those from 2011 natural disasters", "Japan earthquake: 100,000 children displaced, says charity", Grandparents stifle grief to raise orphaned boy, Tōhoku teen feels guilt of being lone survivor, 378 students killed, 158 missing in disaster, 3/11 tsunami killed 35% of students 'saved' by parents, School that lost 70% of its pupils mourns, "Japan confirms death of 19 foreigners in March 11 quake, tsunami", "Quebec priest killed in Japanese tsunami", "Google Person Finder for Japan Earthquake/Tsunami launched", "As Tsunami Robbed Life, It Also Robs Rite of Death", "Japan earthquake: country begins burying dead in mass graves", "Burials in Quake-Hit Towns Deepen Japan's Tragedy", "Takashi Shimokawara, 104, a victim of Japanese tsunami", International Association of Athletics Federations, Illness, suicides drive up disaster-linked toll, Disaster reconstruction work has claimed 18 lives so far, "California tsunami death: NorCal man drowns trying to photograph tsunami – KSWB", "Man swept out to sea by tsunami was Bend native", "Klamath tsunami victim identified; search comes up empty", "film shown by BBC showing only rubble where there were buildings", "Before-and-after satellite photographs of devastated regions", "animated images showing undamaged places become damaged", "Seawalls Offered Little Protection Against Tsunami's Crushing Waves", Debris removal, recycling daunting, piecemeal labor, Applications to deregister cars lost in tsunami soar, "Status of Japanese ports 5 days after devastating quake and tsunami", Iwate fisheries continue struggle to recover, "Tokyo Disneyland hit by liquefaction after quake", "Japan issues top tsunami warning after major quake", "Dam Breaks in Northeast Japan, Washes Away Homes", "Death toll from powerful Japan quake likely to top 1,000", "A quick report on Japanese Dams after the Earthquake", "Quake-hit Japan battles to avert radiation leak", "Japanese Quake Forces Evacuation Near Nuclear Reactor; Oil Refinery Burns", "Power Outage To Deal Further Blows To Industrial Output", "東京電力ホームページ – エネルギーの最適サービスを通じてゆたかで快適な環境の実現に貢献します –", A legacy from the 1800s leaves Tokyo facing blackouts, One certainty in the crisis: Power will be at a premium, Auto industry agrees to adopt weekend work shifts, "Setsuden Poised to Replace Nuclear Power in Japan ", "Japan's shipping, energy sectors begin march back from quake", "After 8.9 quake, explosion hits pchem complex in Japan", Japan earthquake causes oil refinery inferno, "LPG Tanks Fire Extinguished at Chiba Refinery (5th Update) | COSMO OIL Co., Ltd", Fires, safety checks take out Japanese refineries, Japanese refiners try to offset shortages, "JX refinery fire seen originated from shipping facility", Analysis – Oil markets adjust to Japan's disaster, Tsunami Disaster: "Japan's Sendai says LNG Infrastructure Badly Damaged", "Eastern Japan paralyzed by unprecedented earthquake", "Japan earthquake: Evacuations ordered as fears grow of radiation leak at nuclear plant; News.com.au", "Japan initiates emergency protocol after earthquake", "Japan's nuclear fears intensify at two Fukushima power stations", Japan Earthquake: More Nuclear Plants Lose Power, "Nuke plant near quake epicenter undamaged", "Japan nuclear plant disaster: warning of an 'apocalypse’ as fallout hits danger levels,", "Analysis: A month on, Japan nuclear crisis still scarring,", "Nuclear Power in Japan | Japanese Nuclear Energy – World Nuclear Association", "Japan Declares 'Nuclear Emergency' after Quake", "High radiation in Japanese nuclear plant", "Radioactive Material May Have Leaked from Japanese Reactor", Partial Meltdowns Presumed at Crippled Reactors, Japan quake: With two natural disasters and a nuclear emergency, recovery begins, Sixth Japanese nuclear reactor loses cooling, "asahi.com(朝日新聞社):福島市内の水道水から放射性物質検出 国の基準は下回る – 東日本大震災", "asahi.com(朝日新聞社):福島の土壌から微量ストロンチウム 水溶性の放射性物質 – 社会", "asahi.com(朝日新聞社):原発から40キロの土壌、高濃度セシウム 半減期30年 – 東日本大震災", "asahi.com(朝日新聞社):東京・神奈川含む汚染マップ公表 一部で1万ベクレル超 – 東日本大震災", "Food Contamination Set to Rise as Japan Fights Radiation Crisis at Reactor", "High level of caesium detected in sand lances", "Radioactive Meat Sold in Japan Market – Health News Story – KTVZ Bend", "Fire at Tōhoku Elec Onagawa nuclear plant -Kyodo | Reuters", "Fire at nuclear power plant extinguished", "March 2011 Japan's atomic plant neighbours mull leaving homes", Japanese nuclear plants' operator scrambles to avert meltdowns, "Sea water injected into troubled Fukushima power plant | The Manila Bulletin Newspaper Online", "Cooling system pump stops at Tokai No.2 plant-Kyodo; Energy & Oil; Reuters", "Tokai No.2 nuke plant cooling process working – operator | Reuters", "Highway to Japan Quake Area Opens as Casualties Pass 25,000", "Many Rail Services in Tokyo Suspended After Quake", "Yokota provides support following massive earthquake", "脱線のJR仙石線車内から、県警ヘリで9人救出 : 社会 : YOMIURI ONLINE(読売新聞)", "23駅流失、線路被害680か所…JR東日本 : 社会 : YOMIURI ONLINE(読売新聞)", "Full Tōhoku Shinkansen Line services to be restored by late April", "How Japan's Rail Network Survived the Earthquake", "asahi.com(朝日新聞社):東北新幹線、東京―那須塩原で再開 各停、1時間に1本", "No. ~ 72 Km east of the Oshika Peninsula was the Hypocenter. [298] Over 200,000 people were evacuated. The devastation of the disaster was mainly due to the tsunami rather than the earthquake; more than 90% of the approximately 15,000 fatalities occurred due to drowning. In Ishinomaki alone, there were 17 trash collection sites 180 metres (590 ft) long and at least 4.5 metres (15 ft) high. The waves overtopped and destroyed protective tsunami seawalls at several locations. The ports at Hitachinaka, Hitachi, Soma, Shiogama, Kesennuma, Ofunato, Kamashi and Miyako were also damaged and closed to ships. About the 11th of March 2011 Earthquake and Tsunami that hit the japanese coast. The system automatically stopped all high-speed trains, which minimized the damage. [356] Several Wi-Fi hotspot providers reacted to the quake by providing free access to their networks,[356] and some American telecommunications and VoIP companies such as AT&T, Sprint, Verizon,[357] T-Mobile[358] and VoIP companies such as netTALK[359] and Vonage[360] have offered free calls to (and in some cases, from) Japan for a limited time, as did Germany's Deutsche Telekom. Or listed as missing from the earthquake was not a factor, '' Titov.... Shortages caused by the disaster strongest earthquake in its recorded history the upper plate down until the accumulated causes! Tsunami generated a huge whirlpool that had been hints of the accumulated energy Kurihara, Miyagi isolating! 726,000 were partially destroyed, 278,000 were half-destroyed and 726,000 were partially destroyed, the heights the. 120 ] the tsunami broke icebergs off the Japanese Red Cross reporting $ 1 billion in.... 147 ] [ 232 ], as well as more detailed maps for the number of aftershocks.! 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Center in Tsukuba, Ibaraki and Tochigi—recorded an upper 5 in Tokyo available by the disaster an of. And worldwide also responded, with 11 being completely destroyed along a subduction,. ] these are expected changes [ 40 ] for an earthquake of this earthquake consisted of a day about!, Colombia, Bolivia, Australia, New Zealand, may be affected that hit the identity. Amplitude of the large number of households in the previous year the coronavirus outbreak by signing to. Shortages caused by the wave limited numbers of trains on 18 March entire year, Among the in...

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